The vast majority of mental illnesses can be conceptualized as developmental disorders of neural interactions within the connectome, or developmental miswiring. The recent maturation of pediatric invivo brain imaging is bringing the identification of clinically meaningful brain-based biomarkers of developmental disorders within reach. Even more auspicious is the ability to study the evolving connectome throughout life, beginning in utero, which promises to move the field from topological phenomenology to etiological nosology. Here, we scope advances in pediatric imaging of the brain connectome as the field faces the challenge of unraveling developmental miswiring. We highlight promises while also providing a pragmatic review of the many obstacles ahead that must be overcome to significantly impact public health.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors wish to thank Dr. Nicholas Van Dam, Ms. Hallie Brown, and Ms. Emma Stanislawski for editorial suggestions on earlier versions of this manuscript and Mr. Krishna Somandepalli, Mr. Dillon Sharp, and Ms. Monica Gordillo for assistance in figure preparation. This work was supported in part by NIH (R21MH102660-01 to A.D.M.; U01MH099059 to M.P.M.; K23MH09813 to T.D.S.; R01MH096773 and R00MH091238 to D.A.F.; R01MH080243, R21HD074850, and MH067924 to B.L.; R03MH104334 to C.K.); the National Key Technologies R&D Program of China (2012BAI36B01), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81171409, 81220108014), and the Key Research Program and the Hundred Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KSZD-EW-TZ-002) awarded to X.-N.Z.; the support of the Leon Levy Foundation to C.K.; gifts from Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen to F.X.C. and M.P.M. and from Joseph P. Healey to M.P.M; and NARSAD Award to M.E.T.
© 2014 Elsevier Inc.