Unraveling the Gonyaulax baltica Species Complex: Cyst–theca Relationship of Impagidinium variaseptum, Spiniferites pseudodelicatus sp. nov. and S. ristingensis (Gonyaulacaceae, Dinophyceae), With Descriptions of Gonyaulax bohaiensis sp. nov, G. amoyensis sp. nov. and G. portimonensis sp. nov.

Haifeng Gu, Kenneth Neil Mertens, Amélie Derrien, Gwenael Bilien, Zhen Li, Philipp Hess, Véronique Séchet, Bernd Krock, Ana Amorim, Zhun Li, Vera Pospelova, Kirsty F. Smith, Lincoln MacKenzie, Joo Yeon Yoon, Hyun Jung Kim, Hyeon Ho Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The taxonomy of the extant dinoflagellate genus Gonyaulax is challenging since its thecate morphology is rather conservative. In contrast, cysts of Gonyaulax are varied in morphology and have been related with the fossil-based genera Spiniferites and Impagidinium. To better understand the systematics of Gonyaulax species, we performed germination experiments on cysts that can be identified as S. ristingensis, an unidentified Spiniferites with petaloid processes here described as Spiniferites pseudodelicatus sp. nov. and Impagidinium variaseptum from Chinese and Portuguese waters. Despite marked differences in cyst morphology, motile cells of S. pseudodelicatus and I. variaseptum are indistinguishable from Gonyaulax baltica. Motile cells hatched from S. ristingensis are morphologically similar to G. baltica as well but differ in the presence of one pronounced antapical spine. Three new species, Gonyaulax amoyensis (cyst equivalent S. pseudodelicatus), Gonyaulax bohaiensis (cyst equivalent I. variaseptum), and Gonyaulax portimonensis (cyst equivalent S. ristingensis), were erected. In addition, a new ribotype (B) of G. baltica was reported from South Korea and a bloom of G. baltica ribotype B is reported from New Zealand. Molecular phylogeny based on LSU and SSU rRNA gene sequences revealed that Gonyaulax species with minute or short antapical spines formed a well-resolved clade, whereas species with two pronounced antapical spines or lack of antapical spines formed the sister clade. Six strains of four above species were examined for yessotoxin production by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and very low concentrations of yessotoxin were detected for one G. bohaiensis strain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)465-486
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Phycology
Volume58
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 42076085, 42030404), the National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea (grant 2021M01100), the KRIBB Research Initiative Program (grant KGM5232113) and a National Research Foundation of Korea grant (MSIT) (2021R1C1C1008377). The Regional Council of Brittany, the General Council of Finistère and the urban community of Concarneau-Cornouaille-Agglomération are acknowledged for the funding of the Sigma 300 FE-SEM of the station of Marine Biology in Concarneau. KNM, VS, AA, and PH acknowledge the project H2020 RISE project EMERTOX—Emergent Marine Toxins in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean: New Approaches to Assess their Occurrence and Future Scenarios in the Framework of Global Environmental Changes—Grant Agreement No. 778069. LM and KFS acknowledge the Seafood Safety Research Platform funded by the New Zealand Ministry for Business, Innovation and Employment (Contract CAWX1801) and a Royal Society of New Zealand Catalyst: Seeding Grant (CSG-CAW1601) to KS and KNM. AA acknowledges funding through National Science Foundation of Portugal (FCT, I.P.) under the project UID/MAR/04292/2020. We thank Paul Gabrielson for detailed edits.

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 42076085, 42030404), the National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea (grant 2021M01100), the KRIBB Research Initiative Program (grant KGM5232113) and a National Research Foundation of Korea grant (MSIT) (2021R1C1C1008377). The Regional Council of Brittany, the General Council of Finistère and the urban community of Concarneau‐Cornouaille‐Agglomération are acknowledged for the funding of the Sigma 300 FE‐SEM of the station of Marine Biology in Concarneau. KNM, VS, AA, and PH acknowledge the project H2020 RISE project EMERTOX—Emergent Marine Toxins in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean: New Approaches to Assess their Occurrence and Future Scenarios in the Framework of Global Environmental Changes—Grant Agreement No. 778069. LM and KFS acknowledge the Seafood Safety Research Platform funded by the New Zealand Ministry for Business, Innovation and Employment (Contract CAWX1801) and a Royal Society of New Zealand Catalyst: Seeding Grant (CSG‐CAW1601) to KS and KNM. AA acknowledges funding through National Science Foundation of Portugal (FCT, I.P.) under the project UID/MAR/04292/2020. We thank Paul Gabrielson for detailed edits.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Phycological Society of America.

Keywords

  • DNA sequencing
  • Dinophyte
  • Impagidinium
  • LSU
  • SSU
  • Spiniferites
  • yessotoxin

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

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