Universal design and multimethod approaches to item review

Christopher J Johnstone, Sandra J. Thompson, Nicole A. Bottsford-Miller, Martha L. Thurlow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Test items undergo multiple iterations of review before states and vendors deem them acceptable to be placed in a live statewide assessment. This article reviews three approaches that can add validity evidence to states' item review processes. The first process is a structured sensitivity review process that focuses on universal design considerations for items. The second method is a series of statistical analyses intended to increase the limited amount of information that can be derived from analyses on low-incidence populations (such as students who are blind, deaf, or have cognitive disabilities). Finally, think aloud methods are described as a method for understanding why particular items might be problematic for students.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-36
Number of pages12
JournalEducational Measurement: Issues and Practice
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2008


  • Assessment
  • Disability
  • Large-scale assessment


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