United States Validation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR)

Mardi Gomberg-Maitland, Thenappan Thenappan, Kamran Rizvi, Sonal Chandra, David M. Meads, Stephen P. McKenna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations


Background: The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) is the first pulmonary hypertension-specific instrument for assessing patient-reported symptoms, functioning, and quality of life. To enable use in the United States, this study adapted, field-tested, and evaluated its reliability and validity at a single center in Chicago. Methods: A lay panel confirmed appropriate wording of CAMPHOR for United States patients, and 15 patients with pulmonary hypertension field-tested the CAMPHOR for face and content validity. A postal validation study, with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey as a comparator, was sent to patients on 2 occasions, 2 weeks apart. World Health Organization (WHO) functional class and 6-minute walk test data were obtained. Results: Field-test interviews found the CAMPHOR relevant and comprehensible. A total of 147 patients (84.0% women) with a mean of 50 ± 14.6 years participated in the validation study. The new scales had good test-retest reliability (range, 0.80-0.95) and internal consistency (range, 0.78-0.95). The CAMPHOR scales correlated with the SF-36 and 6-minute walk test. Patients in WHO functional class III had worse scores than those in class II (p = 0.02), as did patients who rated their health worse (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The US CAMPHOR is a reliable and valid measure of quality of life and health status in pulmonary hypertension and can be recommended for use in clinical practice and trials in the United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)124-130
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008


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