Unisensory and Multisensory Stroop Effects Modulate Gender Differences in Verbal and Nonverbal Emotion Perception

Yi Lin, Hongwei Ding, Yang Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose This study aimed to examine the Stroop effects of verbal and nonverbal cues and their relative impacts on gender differences in unisensory and multisensory emotion perception. Method Experiment 1 investigated how well 88 normal Chinese adults (43 women and 45 men) could identify emotions conveyed through face, prosody and semantics as three independent channels. Experiments 2 and 3 further explored gender differences during multisensory integration of emotion through a cross-channel (prosody-semantics) and a cross-modal (face-prosody-semantics) Stroop task, respectively, in which 78 participants (41 women and 37 men) were asked to selectively attend to one of the two or three communication channels. Results The integration of accuracy and reaction time data indicated that paralinguistic cues (i.e., face and prosody) of emotions were consistently more salient than linguistic ones (i.e., semantics) throughout the study. Additionally, women demonstrated advantages in processing all three types of emotional signals in the unisensory task, but only preserved their strengths in paralinguistic processing and showed greater Stroop effects of nonverbal cues on verbal ones during multisensory perception. Conclusions These findings demonstrate clear gender differences in verbal and nonverbal emotion perception that are modulated by sensory channels, which have important theoretical and practical implications. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.16435599.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4439-4457
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research
Volume64
Issue number11
Early online dateSep 22 2021
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
H. Ding and Y. Zhang were supported by the Major Program of National Social Science Foundation of China (No. 18ZDA293). Y. Zhang received additional support from University of Minnesota’s Grand Challenges Exploratory Research Grant.

Funding Information:
H. Ding and Y. Zhang were supported by the Major Program of National Social Science Foundation of China (No. 18ZDA293). Y. Zhang received additional support from University of Minnesota?s Grand Challenges Exploratory Research Grant.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

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