The functions of approximately one-third of the proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis thaliana genome are completely unknown. Moreover, many annotations of the remainder of the genome supply tentative functions, at best. Knowing the ultimate localization of these proteins, as well as the pathways used for getting there, may provide clues as to their functions. The putative localization of most proteins currently relies on in silico-based bioinformatics approaches, which, unfortunately, often result in erroneous predictions. Emerging proteomics techniques coupled with other systems biology approaches now provide researchers with a plethora of methods for elucidating the final location of these proteins on a large scale, as well as the ability to dissect protein-sorting pathways in plants.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors apologize to many authors for the omission of their references owing to restriction in the length of the review and its reference list. Research in the authors’ laboratory is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (MCB 0296080 to Natasha V Raikhel) and the Department of Energy, Division of Energy Biosciences (DE-FG03-02ER15295/A00 to Natasha V Raikhel). Songqin Pan and Clay J Carter contributed equally to the manuscript.
- Protein trafficking