Understanding of hydrogen silsesquioxane electron resist for sub- 5-nm-half-pitch lithography

Joel K.W. Yang, Bryan Cord, Huigao Duan, Karl K. Berggren, Joseph Klingfus, Sung Wook Nam, Ki Bum Kim, Michael J. Rooks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

136 Scopus citations


The authors, demonstrated that 4.5-nm -half-pitch structures could be achieved using electron-beam lithography, followed by salty development. They also hypothesized a development mechanism for hydrogen silsesquioxane, wherein screening of the resist surface charge is crucial in achieving a high initial development rate, which might be a more accurate assessment of developer performance than developer contrast. Finally, they showed that with a high-development-rate process, a short duration development of 15 s was sufficient to resolve high-resolution structures in 15-nm-thick resist, while a longer development degraded the quality of the structures with no improvement in the resolution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2622-2627
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2009

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Henry I. Smith, James M. Daley, and Mark K. Mondol for helpful discussions. Patterning was done at MIT’s shared scanning-electron-beam-lithography facility in the Research Laboratory of Electronics. One of the authors (J.K.W.Y.) would like to acknowledge his fellowship from Singapore. This work was funded in part by Alfaisal University and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology. The work at Seoul National University was supported by the Frontier Research Program of Tera-Level Nanodevices (TND) funded by the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST).


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