Under Water to Outer Space: Augmented Reality for Astronauts and beyond

Benjamin Nuernberger, Robert Tapella, Samuel Hunter Berndt, So Young Kim, Sasha Samochina, Melanie Tory, Daniel F. Keefe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Augmented reality (AR) has the potential to help astronauts execute procedures in a quicker, more intuitive, and safer way. A key part of realizing these benefits has been the use of an undersea research facility-the Aquarius-that acts as an analog to the International Space Station to a certain extent. In a June 2019 mission, the Aquarius crew successfully executed a complex procedure taking place across four different task areas by using an AR application called ProtoSpace developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In this article, we share the detailed results of the study, lessons learned, and future work needed to further enable the enhancement of procedure execution through augmented reality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8951768
Pages (from-to)82-89
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 17 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NM0018D0004). Early stages of this work were done in collaboration with L. Wang and C. Russell at the Johnson Space Center. The authors would like to thank Rob Ray for creating the physical mockups of the task areas. Special thanks to NEEMO 23 Mission Director Marc Reagan as well as the entire NEEMO 23 team for a successful mission.

Publisher Copyright:
© 1981-2012 IEEE.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

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