Studies were conducted to characterize 18 isolates of Campylobacter spp. that could not be identified as either Campylobacter jejuni or C. coli. The isolates were cultured from specimens from 13 of 18 infant nonhuman primates during a prospective epidemiologic study reported previously. Phenotypic tests, DNA hybridization, and analysis of DNA coding for rRNA identified the isolates as C. butzleri (seven isolates), C. hyointestinalis (seven isolates), and C. fetus subsp. fetus or C. fetus subsp. fetus-like organisms (four isolates). Ribotype and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns indicated that there was heterogeneity among the isolates of C. butzleri and C. fetus subsp. fetus-like organisms.