Background and aims: Concerns in some settings regarding the accuracy and ethics of employing direct questions about alcohol use suggest need for alternative assessment approaches with youth. Umyuangcaryaraq is a Yup'ik Alaska Native word meaning "Reflecting." Objectives: The Reflective Processes Scale was developed as a youth measure tapping awareness and thinking over potential negative consequences of alcohol misuse as a protective factor that includes cultural elements often shared by many other Alaska Native and American Indian cultures. This study assessed multidimensional structure, item functioning, and validity. Methods: Responses from 284 rural Alaska Native youth allowed bifactor analysis to assess structure, estimates of location and discrimination parameters, and convergent and discriminant validity. Results: A bifactor model of the scale items with three content factors provided excellent fit to observed data. Item response theory analysis suggested a binary response format as optimal. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was established. Conclusion: The measure provides an assessment of reflective processes about alcohol that Alaska Native youth engage in when thinking about reasons not to drink. Scientific significance: The concept of reflective processes has potential to extend understandings of cultural variation in mindfulness, alcohol expectancies research, and culturally mediated protective factors in Alaska Native and American Indian youth.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by grants: R21AA0016098, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, PI: James Allen; R24MD001626, National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, PI: James Allen; R21AA015541, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, PI: Gerald V. Mohatt; R01AA11446, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism & National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, PI: Gerald V. Mohatt; and P20RR061430, National Center for Research Resources, PI: Gerald V. Mohatt and the second author received a University of Alaska International Polar Year Postdoctoral Fellowship award. The authors acknowledge the invaluable contributions of James A.Walsh. The authors thank all of the People Awakening Team including participants, community co-researchers, our Coordinating Council, and our project staff for their assistance in completing this research.
- Alcohol expectancies
- American Indian and Alaska Native