The cooked meat carcinogens 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and their principal metabolites produced by cytochrome P450 and/or uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferases were simultaneously measured at the parts per trillion level in urine of omnivores, by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with a Michrom Advance CaptiveSpray source and a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. Quantitation was performed in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The UPLC method is much more rapid and sensitive than our earlier capillary HPLC method: the duty cycle of the UPLC method is 19 min compared to 57 min for capillary HPLC. The performance of the UPLC assay was evaluated with urine samples from three subjects over 4 different days. The intraday and interday precisions ofthe estimates ofPhIP, MeIQx, and their metabolites, reported as the coefficients of variation, were <10%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) values for PhIP and MeIQx were about 5 pg/mL, whereas the LOQ values of their metabolites ranged from 10 to 40 pg/mL. Furthermore, the identities of the analytes were corroborated by acquisition of full scan product ion spectra, employing between 0.5 and 5 pg of analyte for assay.