Objective The aim of this study is to explore empirical clusters within the population of young Spanish individuals attending outpatient pathological gambling treatment. Method The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R), the Temperament and Character Inventory-R (TCI-R) and other clinical and psychopathological measures were administered to 154 patients (between 17 and 25 years old). The two-step cluster analysis explored the presence of empirical heterogeneous groups based on clinical and socio-demographic characteristics. Results Three clusters of young pathological gambling patients emerged. Type I showed less psychopathology and more functional personality traits. Type II showed a profile characterized by major emotional distress, shame, immaturity, hostility and negative feelings. Type III showed the most severe psychopathological profile and most psychopathological disturbances and schizotypal traits. Conclusions These results suggest that three distinct endophenotypes exist, and that environmental factors have a stronger influence in the first, while in the second and third, individual factors related to deficits of emotional regulation stand out.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Partial financial support was received from Ministerio de Economía y Copetitividad ( PSI2011-28349 ) and AGAUR ( 2009SGR1554 ). CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn) and CIBER Salud Mental (CIBERsam), are both initiatives of ISCIII. This work is part of the PhD thesis of Lamprini G. Savvidou at the University of Barcelona (School of Medicine).