Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease: An Opportunity for Pharmacists to Improve Outcomes

Joshua J. Neumiller, Wendy L. St. Peter, Jay H. Shubrook

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important contributor to end-stage kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and death in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but current evidence suggests that diagnosis and treatment are often not optimized. This review examines gaps in care for patients with CKD and how pharmacist interventions can mitigate these gaps. We conducted a PubMed search for published articles reporting on real-world CKD management practice and compared the findings with current recommendations. We find that adherence to guidelines on screening for CKD in patients with T2D is poor with particularly low rates of testing for albuminuria. When CKD is diagnosed, the prescription of recommended heart–kidney protective therapies is underutilized, possibly due to issues around treatment complexity and safety concerns. Cost and access are barriers to the prescription of newer therapies and treatment is dependent on racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors. Rates of nephrologist referrals for difficult cases are low in part due to limitations of information and communication between specialties. We believe that pharmacists can play a vital role in improving outcomes for patients with CKD and T2D and support the cost-effective use of healthcare resources through the provision of comprehensive medication management as part of a multidisciplinary team. The Advancing Kidney Health through Optimal Medication Management initiative supports the involvement of pharmacists across healthcare systems to ensure that comprehensive medication management can be optimally implemented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1367
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the authors.


  • chronic
  • diabetes mellitus
  • heart and kidney protection
  • multidisciplinary care
  • pharmacist
  • renal insufficiency
  • type 2

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review


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