The purpose of this study was to determine the impact that the Minnesota lead policy had on affordable rental housing in Minneapolis and St. Paul. Questionnaires were sent to 487 owners of property in those cities who were issued lead orders in 1994 or 1995; 147 questionnaires were returned. There was a significant difference in the implementation of the state policy by the two cities. Lead orders written by the City of Minneapolis required more work, more complex work, and higher costs than did the lead orders written by the City of St. Paul. Orders issued by St. Paul were more in line with hazard reduction (lead-safe) activities, whereas those issued by Minneapolis were more in line with abatement (lead-free) activities. In Minneapolis, there was a significantly greater loss of affordable housing units through abandonment by the property owner, condemnation by the city, increased vacancy periods, and changes in the affordability level.