Twelve-Month Results from a Prospective Clinical Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Cellular Bone Allograft in Subjects Undergoing Lumbar Spinal Fusion

Joshua Wind, Daniel Park, Todd Lansford, Pierce Nunley, Timothy Peppers, Anthony Russo, Hamid Hassanzadeh, Jonathan N. Sembrano, Jung Yoo, Jonathan Sales

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: While autologous bone grafts remain the gold standard for spinal fusion procedures, harvesting autologous bone is associated with significant complications, including donor site infection, hematomas, increased operative time, and prolonged pain. Cellular bone allograft (CBA) presents an alternative to autologous bone harvesting, with a favorable efficacy and safety profile. The current study further investigates CBA as an adjunct to lumbar spinal fusion procedures. Methods: A prospective, multicenter, open-label clinical study was conducted in subjects undergoing lumbar spinal fusion with CBA (NCT 02969616). Radiographic fusion status was assessed by an independent review of dynamic radiographs and CT scans. Clinical outcome measures included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain. Adverse-event reporting was conducted throughout 12 months of follow-up. Available subject data at 12 months were analyzed. Results: A total of 274 subjects were enrolled into the study, with available data from 201 subjects (73.3%) who completed 12 months of postoperative radiographic and clinical evaluation at the time of analysis. Subjects had a mean age of 60.2 ± 11.5 years. A higher number of women (n = 124, 61.7%) than men (n = 77, 38.3%) were enrolled, with a collective mean BMI of 30.6 + 6.5 kg/m2 (range 18.0–51.4). At month 12, successful fusion was achieved in 90.5% of subjects. A significant (p < 0.001) improvement in ODI, VAS-back, and VAS-leg clinical outcomes was also observed compared to baseline scores. One adverse event related to CBA (postoperative radiculopathy) was reported, with surgical exploration demonstrating interbody extrusion of graft material. This subject reported successful fusion at month 12. Conclusions: CBA represents a viable substitute for harvesting of autograft alone with a high rate of successful fusion and significant improvements in subject-reported outcomes, such as pain and disability. Positive benefit was observed in subjects reporting single and multiple risk factors for pseudoarthrosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)875-883
Number of pages9
JournalNeurology International
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by Orthofix Medical, Inc. (Lewisville, TX, USA).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • Trinity Elite
  • arthrodesis
  • cellular allograft
  • lumbar fusion

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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