Turning down the heat: Design and mechanism in solid-state synthesis

Andreas Stein, Steven W. Keller, Thomas E. Mallouk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

550 Scopus citations


Solid-state compounds have historically been prepared through high-temperature solid solid reactions. New mechanistic understanding of these reactions suggests possible routes to metastable compositions and structures as well as to thermodynamically stable low-temperature phases that decompose at higher temperatures. Intermediate-temperature synthetic techniques, including flux and hydrothermal methods, as well as low-temperature intercalation and coordination reactions, have recently been developed and have been used to prepare unprecedented materials with interesting electronic, optical, and catalytic properties. The trend in modern solid-state synthesis resembles increasingly the approach used in small-molecule chemistry, in the sense that attention to reaction mechanism and the use of molecular building blocks result in an ability to prepare new materials of designed structure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1558-1564
Number of pages7
Issue number5101
StatePublished - 1993
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Turning down the heat: Design and mechanism in solid-state synthesis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this