Tungsten-loaded SMP foam nanocomposites with inherent radiopacity and tunable thermo-mechanical properties

Sayyeda M. Hasan, Garrett Harmon, Fang Zhou, Jeffery E. Raymond, Tiffany P. Gustafson, Thomas S. Wilson, Duncan J. Maitland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Shape memory polymer (SMP) foams have been developed for use in neurovascular occlusion applications. These materials are predominantly polyurethanes that are known for their biocompatibility and tunable properties. However, these polymers inherently lack X-ray visibility, which is a significant challenge for their use as implantable materials. Herein, low density, highly porous shape memory polyurethane foams were developed with tungsten nanoparticles dispersed into the foam matrix, at increasing concentrations, to serve as a radiopaque agent. Utilizing X-ray fluoroscopy sufficient visibility of the foams at small geometries was observed. Thermal characterization of the foams indicated altered thermal response and delayed foam actuation with increasing nanoparticle loading (because of restricted network mobility). Mechanical testing indicated decreased toughness and strength for higher loading because of disruption of the SMP matrix. Overall, filler addition imparted x-ray visibility to the SMP foams and allowed for tuned control of the transition temperature and actuation kinetics for the material.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)195-203
Number of pages9
JournalPolymers for Advanced Technologies
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


  • Aneurysm
  • Dispersion
  • Glass transition temperature
  • Nanocomposite
  • Radiopacity


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