Immunodeficient patients are at an increased risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphomas. We report a patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID), who presented with an EBV-negative, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The tumor did not resolve with chemotherapy or rituximab, but only after recovery of functional donor T-cells cell following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This case illustrates that the cancer predilection associated with immunodeficient hosts may not be a specific immune defect in the recognition of viral specific antigens, and it could be a defect in immune surveillance necessary for elimination of cells with abnormalities in proliferation, function and/or apoptosis.
- Tumor immune surveillance