The intestinal homeostasis is an orchestrated dynamic equilibrium state composed of the coexistence and interactions among the nutrients, microbial flora, and immune system. The intestinal balance disorder can trigger a series of diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Many of tryptophan (Trp) metabolites, such as kynurenine and indole, generated under a series of endogenous enzymes or microbial metabolism, have been reported enable to bind and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), this series of process is termed the Trp-AhR pathway. The activated Trp-AhR pathway can induce the expression of downstream cytokines such as interleukin-22 (IL-22) and interleukin-17 (IL-17), thereby regulating the intestinal homeostasis. This review highlights the advance of Trp-AhR pathway in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis and provides some insights for the clinical strategies that expect to effectively prevent and treat gut diseases via intervening the Trp-AhR pathway.
- Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)
- immune barrier
- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
- intestinal homeostasis
- tryptophan (Trp)
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article