Truth in DAIR: Duration of Therapy and the Use of Quinolone/Rifampin-Based Regimens After Debridement and Implant Retention for Periprosthetic Joint Infections

Don Bambino Geno Tai, Elie F Berbari, Gina A Suh, Brian D Lahr, Matthew P Abdel, Aaron J Tande

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5 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy after debridement and implant retention (DAIR) for periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) is debated. Furthermore, the best antibiotic regimens for staphylococcal PJI are also unclear. In this study, we evaluated the impact of antibiotic therapy duration on the risk of failure. We assessed the utility of rifampin-based regimens for staphylococcal PJI managed with DAIR.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients 18 years and older diagnosed with hip and knee PJI who underwent DAIR between January 1, 2008 and 31 December 31, 2018 at Mayo Clinic, USA. The outcome was failure of DAIR. For statistical analysis, joint-stratified Cox regression models adjusted for age, sinus tract, symptom duration, and primary/revision arthroplasty were performed.

RESULTS: We examined 247 cases of PJI with a median follow-up of 4.4 years (interquartile range [IQR], 2.3-7) after DAIR. The estimated 5-year cumulative incidence of failure was 28.1% ( n  = 65). There was no association between the duration of intravenous (IV) antibiotics (median 42 days; IQR, 38-42) and treatment failure ( P  = .119). A shorter duration of subsequent oral antibiotic therapy was associated with a higher risk of failure ( P  = .005; eg, 90-day vs 1-year duration; hazard ratio [HR], 3.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-8.25). For staphylococcal knee PJI, both the use and longer duration of a rifampin-based regimen were associated with a lower risk of failure (both P  = .025). There was no significant association between fluoroquinolone (FQ) use and failure (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, .31-1.24; P  = .172).

CONCLUSIONS: The duration of initial IV antibiotic therapy did not correlate with treatment failure in this cohort of patients. Rifampin use is recommended for staphylococcal knee PJI. There was no apparent benefit of FQ use in staphylococcal PJI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)ofac363
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Volume9
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

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