Trunk flare diameter predictions as an infrastructure planning tool to reduce tree and sidewalk conflicts

Eric A. North, Gary R. Johnson, Thomas E. Burk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Research has shown urban trees have numerous benefits for society, many of which are not realized until trees have grown to a mature size. However, many trees are removed every year due to their negative impacts on urban infrastructure before their benefits are fully realized. Trunk flares and roots damage sidewalks and other urban infrastructure. This study's intent was to create predictive models for two tree genera commonly planted as street trees in Minnesota landscapes. Linear regression techniques were used to create predictive equations using diameter at breast height (DBH) as the primary predictive variable. Predictive models of trunk flare diameter at ground line (TFD) have potential to provide urban foresters and urban planners with a practical method for predicting TFD in order to aid infrastructure plans that reduce conflicts between urban trees and urban infrastructure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)65-71
Number of pages7
JournalUrban Forestry and Urban Greening
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Financial support was provided by the University of Minnesota's Natural Resources Science and Management graduate program through the Josephine and Waldemore Mohl and Catherine S. Hill Fellowships in Forest Resources. Thank you to the Minnesota cities of: Crookston, Hibbing, Hendricks, Hutchinson, and Rochester for sharing data and resources to the project.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 Elsevier GmbH.


  • Green infrastructure
  • Sidewalk damage
  • Street tree
  • Trunk flare diameter
  • Urban infrastructure


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