BACKGROUND: Global variation in lymphoma incidence by type and age at diagnosis, region, sex, and Human Development Index (HDI) categories has not been reported, may shed light on potential biologic mechanisms and identify areas for targeted interventions.
METHODS: Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents data from 1988 to 2012, we identified Hodgkin (HL), non-Hodgkin (NHL), and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) diagnosed in children aged 0-19 years. We estimated incidence rates (IRs; cases/million) and average annual percent change in incidence (AAPC; 95 % CI) by geographic region, sex, and HDI for each age group (0-9years and 10-19 years).
RESULTS: There were 42,440 NHL, 38,683 H L, and 7703 included. Southern European (SE) 10-19-year-olds (yo) had the highest IR of NHL (19.6 cases/million) in 2008-2012. HL IRs for 0-9yo were <6 cases/million and >25 cases/million for 10-19yo in European regions and Oceania (OC). BL IRs were generally <5cases/million. Northern Europe (NE), SE, and OC 10-19yo had significantly increased APPCs in incidence for all lymphomas with the largest increases in BL (NE AAPC: 7.69 %; 95 % CI: 5.27, 10.16; SE AAPC: 5.21 %; 95 % CI: 3.26, 7.19; OC AAPC: 3.97 %; 95 % CI: 3.26, 4.70). BL incidence increased among males of all ages by approximately 2 %. NHL and BL incidence increased significantly among 10-19yo in very high HDI countries by approximately 3 %.
CONCLUSIONS: Southern and Northern Europe and Oceania displayed increased incidence of all lymphomas studied from 1988 to 2012. BL incidence significantly increased in 8 of 15 global regions, males, and higher HDI countries over the study period. Mechanisms underlying these increases remain to be elucidated.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The Children's Cancer Research Fund (LAW).
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd
- Age Distribution
- Child, Preschool
- Global Health/statistics & numerical data
- Infant, Newborn
- Sex Distribution
- Young Adult
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't