Trends and Characteristics of Occupational Suicide and Homicide in Farmers and Agriculture Workers, 1992–2010

Wendy Ringgenberg, Corinne Peek-Asa, Kelley Donham, Marizen Ramirez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Objective: We examined work-related homicides and suicides among farm operators/workers in the United States from 1992 to 2010. Methods: Work-related homicide and suicide cases from 1992 to 2010 were obtained from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. To calculate rates, denominator data on the US working population were also obtained from 2003 to 2010 Current Population Survey. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that were differentially associated with homicide and suicide. Results: Over these 19 years, 171 farm operators/workers died from homicide and 230 died from suicide. When compared to rates of all workers, suicide rates were higher while homicide rates were lower among farm operators/workers. Males (OR = 6.1), whites (OR = 4.7), and 35- to 54-year-old (OR = 2.3) farm operators/workers had increased odds of suicide over homicide compared with their respective counterparts (ie, females, nonwhites, <35-year-olds). Those working in smaller farm operations with <11 employees had 1.7 times the odds of suicide over homicide. Conclusions: Suicide and homicide are both present in the agricultural industry, with suicide being more common than homicide. Translation of suicide prevention programs should be explored for the agricultural industry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)246-253
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Rural Health
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This study was supported with funding through the Heartland Center for Occupational Health and Safety at the University of Iowa and is supported by Training Grant No. T42OH008491 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Authors were provided restricted access to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 National Rural Health Association


  • agriculture
  • farmers
  • homicide
  • mental health
  • suicide


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