Treatment-refractory schizophrenia in children and adolescents: An update on clozapine and other pharmacologic interventions

Harvey N. Kranzler, Hana M. Kester, Ginny Gerbino-Rosen, Inika N. Henderson, Joseph Youngerman, Guy Beauzile, Keith Ditkowsky, Sanjiv Kumra

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Treatment-refractory early-onset schizophrenia is a rare but severe form of the disorder associated with poor premorbid function and long-term disability. The currently available evidence suggests that clozapine remains the most efficacious treatment for the amelioration of both positive and negative symptoms of the disorder and problematic aggressive behaviors. Clozapine use in children and adolescents, however, is limited by its association with hematologic adverse events and an increased frequency of seizure activity. Further studies are needed to examine the usefulness of antipsychotic combinations and of augmentation therapies to antipsychotic medications in order to treat persistent residual psychotic symptoms in children and adolescents who have schizophrenia and who have not responded to several sequential trials of antipsychotic monotherapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)135-159
Number of pages25
JournalChild and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2006

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