Treatment of Superficial Bladder Cancer

Alexander Karl, Badrinath R. Konety

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


In this chapter six important questions that affect every Urologist in daily clinical routine are posed and answered based on a literature search including systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized trials and observational studies. As references those articles with the highest available degree of evidence were chosen. Issues are the use of an immediate chemoinstillation after TUR-BT, BCG as maintenance therapy, treatment options for BCG refractory non-muscle invasive disease, indications for a second TUR-BT, influence of fluorescence endoscopy on tumor recurrence and the use of urinary markers other than cytology. Recommendation for each issue is ranked using the GRADE system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEvidence-Based Urology
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9781405185943
StatePublished - Jul 9 2010


  • BCG treatment, maintenance therapy - standard of care and BCG maintenance therapy
  • Concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS)
  • EAU guidelines, advocating immediate cystectomy upon BCG failure
  • Fluorescence cystoscopy and residual tumor/recurrence rate
  • Immediate postoperative intravesical instillation - of chemotherapeutic agent
  • Possible risk of BCG treatment - balanced for every patient individually (Grade 2B)
  • Superficial bladder cancer treatment
  • Therapeutic options, from single transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) with early post transurethral resection (TUR) instillation therapy over TURBT
  • Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of bladder - fourth most frequently diagnosed malignancy
  • Treatment of BCG-refractory nonmuscle-invasive TCC


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