Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a small-vessel vasculitis that primarily comprises 2 clinical syndromes: granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis. Cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids have traditionally been used for induction of remission. However, more recent studies have shown that rituximab is as effective as cyclophosphamide for induction therapy in patients with newly diagnosed severe AAV and superior for patients with relapsing AAV. There is also accumulating evidence indicating a potential role of rituximab for maintenance therapy in AAV. In this article, we will review the evidence supporting the various treatment choices for patients with AAV.
- ANCA-associated vasculitis