Clostridium difficile infection is increasing in incidence, severity, and mortality. Treatment options are limited and appear to be losing efficacy. Recurrent disease is especially challenging; extended treatment with oral vancomycin is becoming increasingly common but is expensive. Fecal microbiota transplantation is safe, inexpensive, and effective; according to case and small series reports, about 90% of patients are cured. We discuss the rationale, methods, and use of fecal microbiota transplantation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Conflicts of interest These authors disclose the following: Thomas Borody has patents in the field of fecal transplantation. Alexander Khoruts receives funding from the Minnesota Medical Foundation and NIH grant 1R21AI091907 . The remaining authors disclose no conflicts.
- Clostridium difficile
- Fecal Enema
- Recurrent Infection