Adult kidneys were transplnted into 12 children weighing between 5,400 and 8,800 gm. Ten received parental and two received cadaver grafts. Ten of the 12 children are alive 18 months to 9 years post transplant; eight have their original grafts and two required retransplantation-their original grafts were lost at 4 and 9 years because of chronic rejection. All but these two surviving children had normal or accelerated growth rates despite growth retardation prior to transplant. All children evidenced moderate to severe delay in psychomotor development prior to transplant. Seven of the ten survivors now have normal psychomotor funtion. Two are behind in school, and one with a degenerative central nervous system disease prior to transplant remains profoundly retarded. We conclude that because of donor availability, capacity for good donor-recipient matching, and minimization of time on dialysis, transplantation of adult kidneys into pediatric patients is preferable to awaiting the relatively uncommon pediatric cadaver donor. We further conclude that the procedure is warranted.