Cadaver kidneys remain a scarce resource, yet single pediatric donor kidneys are underutilized at some centers. Between 1967 and 1984, 133 single pediatric and 318 adult donor cadaver transplants were performed. Patient and graft survival, renal function, and complications in adult recipients grouped by donor age were compared. Recipient age for all groups was similar (34-36 years). Life table analysis revealed no difference in graft survival in recipients of kidneys from donors aged 2, 3, 4, 5-10, and 11-15 when compared with adult donors. Graft survival in these groups improved over time with current 1-year survival over 75%. Recipients from donors less than 24 months of age demonstrated significantly poorer results, with no kidney surviving >2 months. Serum creatinine of grafts functioning >6 months was similar in all groups. It is concluded that single pediatric kidneys from donors greater than 2 years of age can be successfully transplanted to adults with good long-term results.