We analyze fiber transmission penalties due to erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) gain transients in a chain of 10-20 EDFA's with as many as 32 wavelength-division-multiplexed channels. Penalties are a result of increased fiber nonlinearity during channel deletion and amplified-spontaneous-emission noise during channel addition. We find that: 1) the system performance is severely degraded both in single-mode fiber and dispersion shifted fiber due to fiber nonlinearities; 2) the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be reduced by up to 8 dB in a 32-channel system; and 3) a control channel to suppress EDFA-gain and SNR transients may impose an additional penalty which increases with the bit rate.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received January 6, 1999; revised April 2, 1999. This work was suppported by the Joint Services Electronics Program, by the NSF ERC in Integrated Media Systems, by the Packard Foundation Fellowship in Science and Engineering, and by the Powell Foundation. M. I. Hayee is with Tyco Submarine Systems, Eatontown, NJ 07724 USA. A. E. Willner is with the Department of Electrical Engineering—Systems, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2565 USA. Publisher Item Identifier S 1041-1135(99)05146-0.