The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has long supported using nonhuman primate (NHP) models for research on kidney, pancreatic islet, heart, and lung transplantation. The primary purpose of this research has been to develop new treatments for down-modulating or preventing deleterious immune responses after transplantation in human patients. Here, we discuss NIH-funded NHP studies of immune cell depletion, costimulation blockade, regulatory cell therapy, desensitization, and mixed hematopoietic chimerism that either preceded clinical trials or prevented the human application of therapies that were toxic or ineffective.
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© 2019 The Authors.