Experimental results of a displacement-controlled elongation of a shape-memory wire of nickel-titanium are presented. It is observed that the hysteretic strain-stress curves depend strongly on the strain rates at which the wire is extended. A theoretical model is proposed to explain this phenomenon. This model couples the fully time-dependent heat transfer in the wire to its quasi-static mechanical behavior through the temperature dependence of the transformation stress of the alloy. It accounts quantitatively for experimentally observed changes in the pseudoelastic hysteresis. The model presented here is different from others proposed in the literature, as it does not make use of a kinetic relation and accounts for the observed changes in the pseudoelastic hysteresis without parameter fitting. The results show that a model consisting of a single moving austenite-martensite interface is sufficient to predict the response of the wire over several decades of strain rate.
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convectionis the dominanht eatt ransfemr ode.T hus, latedb y J. B. Kennedy)G. ordon& Breach,N ewYork Shape Memory Alloys (editedb y H. Funakubot, rans- the best agreemenbt etweent heory and experiment (1986). occurs when the grips are modeleda s insulated. 9. G. D. Smith,N umerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations: Finite Difference Methods. ClarendonP ress, Oxford (1978). Acknowledgements--PHL would like to acknowledgtehe 10. R. F. Sekerka, C. LJe. anfilsa nd R. W. Heckel,T he support of the Army Research Office (grant No. movingb oundarpy roblemi,n Lectures on the Theory of DA/DAAL03-89-G-0081t)h,eAlcoa Foundationand the Phase Transformations (editedb y H. I. Aaronson). CenterforNonlinearAnalysisatCarnegieMellonUniver-T.M.S.-A.I.M.E., New York (1975). sity. TWS wouldliketo acknowledgteheNationaSlcience 11. S. Miyazaki,S . Kimura and K. Otsuka,P hil. Mag. 57, Foundatio(nthroughtheNYI program)t,heOfficeofNaval 467 (1988). Research (graNnto. N N00014-91-J-4034a)nd the Mc-12. J. P. Holman,H eat Transfer. McGraw-Hill,NewYork Knight Foundationfor their support.OPB would like to (1986). acknowledgtehesupportofthe NationalScienceFoun-13. D. E. HodgsonM, . H. Wu and R. J. BiermannM, etals dation(grantNo.DMS-9200002)W.ewouldalsoliketo Handbook, 10the dn,Vol. 2, pp. 897-902.A SM Inter-thank R. D. James,R. AbeyaratnaendJ. K. Knowlesfor national, MateriaPlasr k, Ohio (1990). manyhelpfuldiscussionsand theFlexmedicCso. of Min-14. J. F. Smith,R . L. Jiang andB . Predel,M ater. Sei. neapolisM, N for providingtheNiTi wire specimens. Engng A149, 111 (1991).