Background: Patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation require extensive transfusion support until red blood cell and platelet engraftment occurs. Rare but predictable complications may arise when the transplanted stem cells are incompatible with the native ABO type of the patient. Immediate and delayed hemolysis is often seen.
Methods: A literature review was performed and the results from peer-reviewed papers that contained reproducible findings were integrated.
Results: A strong body of clinical evidence has developed around the common complications experienced with ABO-incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These complications are discussed and the underlying pathophysiology is explained. General treatment options and guidelines are enumerated.
Conclusions: ABO-incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantations are frequently performed. Immune-related hemolysis is a commonly encountered complication; therefore, health care professionals must recognize the signs of immune-mediated hemolysis and understand the various etiologies that may drive the process.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2015, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute. All rights reserved.