The expression of the telomere-associated protein TIN2 has been shown to be essential for early embryonic development in mice and for development of a variety of human malignancies. Recently, germ-line mutations in TINF2, which encodes for the TIN2 protein, have been identified in a number of patients with bone-marrow failure syndromes. Yet, the molecular mechanisms that regulate TINF2 expression are largely unknown. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in human TINF2 regulation, we cloned a 2.7 kb genomic DNA fragment containing the putative promoter region and, through deletion analysis, identified a 406 bp region that functions as a minimal promoter. This promoter proximal region is predicted to contain several putative Sp1 and NF-κB binding sites based on bioinformatic analysis. Direct binding of the Sp1 and NF-κB transcription factors to the TIN2 promoter sequence was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and/or chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Transfection of a plasmid carrying the Sp1 transcription factor into Sp-deficient SL2 cells strongly activated TIN2 promoter-driven luciferase reporter expression. Similarly, the NF-κB molecules p50 and p65 were found to strongly activate luciferase expression in NF-κB knockout MEFs. Mutating the predicted transcription factor binding sites effectively reduced TIN2 promoter activity. Various known chemical inhibitors of Sp1 and NF-κB could also strongly inhibit TIN2 transcriptional activity. Collectively, our results demonstrate the important roles that Sp1 and NF-κB play in regulating the expression of the human telomere-binding protein TIN2, which can shed important light on its possible role in causing various forms of human diseases and cancers.