Transcriptional activation of TINF2, a gene encoding the telomere-associated protein TIN2, by Sp1 and NF-κB factors

Zhong Tao Xin, Kathryn A. Carroll, Naveen Kumar, Kui Song, Hinh Ly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The expression of the telomere-associated protein TIN2 has been shown to be essential for early embryonic development in mice and for development of a variety of human malignancies. Recently, germ-line mutations in TINF2, which encodes for the TIN2 protein, have been identified in a number of patients with bone-marrow failure syndromes. Yet, the molecular mechanisms that regulate TINF2 expression are largely unknown. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in human TINF2 regulation, we cloned a 2.7 kb genomic DNA fragment containing the putative promoter region and, through deletion analysis, identified a 406 bp region that functions as a minimal promoter. This promoter proximal region is predicted to contain several putative Sp1 and NF-κB binding sites based on bioinformatic analysis. Direct binding of the Sp1 and NF-κB transcription factors to the TIN2 promoter sequence was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and/or chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Transfection of a plasmid carrying the Sp1 transcription factor into Sp-deficient SL2 cells strongly activated TIN2 promoter-driven luciferase reporter expression. Similarly, the NF-κB molecules p50 and p65 were found to strongly activate luciferase expression in NF-κB knockout MEFs. Mutating the predicted transcription factor binding sites effectively reduced TIN2 promoter activity. Various known chemical inhibitors of Sp1 and NF-κB could also strongly inhibit TIN2 transcriptional activity. Collectively, our results demonstrate the important roles that Sp1 and NF-κB play in regulating the expression of the human telomere-binding protein TIN2, which can shed important light on its possible role in causing various forms of human diseases and cancers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere21333
JournalPloS one
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2011


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