Tracing viral transmission and evolution of bovine leukemia virus through long read oxford nanopore sequencing of the proviral genome

Laura A. Pavliscak, Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala, Vikash K. Singh, Kelly R.B. Sporer, Tasia M. Taxis, Pawan Kumar, Sagar M. Goyal, Sunil Kumar Mor, Declan C. Schroeder, Scott J. Wells, Casey J. Droscha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL), a persistent life-long disease resulting in immune dysfunction and shortened lifespan in infected cattle, severely impact-ing the profitability of the US dairy industry. Our group has found that 94% of dairy farms in the United States are infected with BLV with an average in-herd prevalence of 46%. This is partly due to the lack of clinical presentation during the early stages of primary infection and the elusive nature of BLV transmission. This study sought to validate a near-complete genomic sequencing approach for reliability and accuracy before determining its efficacy in characterizing the sequence identity of BLV proviral genomes collected from a pilot study made up of 14 animals from one commercial dairy herd. These BLV-infected animals were comprised of seven adult dam/daughter pairs that tested positive by ELISA and qPCR. The results demonstrate sequence identity or divergence of the BLV genome from the same samples tested in two independent laboratories, suggesting both verti-cal and horizontal transmission in this dairy herd. This study supports the use of Oxford Nanopore sequencing for the identification of viral SNPs that can be used for retrospective genetic contact tracing of BLV transmission.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1191
JournalPathogens
Volume10
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords

  • Bovine leukemia virus
  • Oxford nanopore sequencing
  • Phylogenetics
  • Proviral load
  • Retroviral evolution
  • Targeted sequencing

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

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