Towards a new renewable power system using energy storage: An economic and social analysis

Antonio Sánchez, Qi Zhang, Mariano Martín, Pastora Vega

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


The energy transition is one of the main challenges in mitigating the CO2 emissions from the power sector. Solar and wind resources are presented as the two most promising alternatives in the future energy mix. However, the inherent fluctuations of these two resources jeopardize the stability of the grid. To overcome this issue, the combination of intermittent and non-intermittent renewable energies along with different storage technologies is proposed. In this work, the integration of these technologies is evaluated using different future scenarios. Three renewable resources have been analyzed (solar, wind, and biomass) in combination with four different storage systems (battery, hydrogen, methane, and ammonia). This problem has been evaluated from two different perspectives, economic and social (for which a new indicator is developed). Particularly, this methodology is applied to Spain where different provinces have been assessed to implement these integrated facilities. The results show the paramount importance of using storage alternatives to satisfy the demand and to store energy seasonally. In economic terms, an average cost of electricity of about 100–200 €/MWh is expected with a high influence of the ratios of wind and solar in the different locations and the selected storage alternatives. Additionally, the proposed social index indicates the regions where these facilities could be installed to mitigate social inequalities. With this two-pronged approach, an orderly, fair, and efficient planning of the energy transition can be realized to achieve climate sustainability goals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number115056
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
StatePublished - Jan 15 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors acknowledge MICINN Spain grant PID2019-105434RB-C31 and the FPU, Spain grant (FPU16/06212) to A.S.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s)


  • Energy storage
  • Energy transition
  • Power-to-X
  • Renewable energy
  • Social index


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