Toward patient-specific simulations of cardiac valves: State-of-the-art and future directions

Emiliano Votta, Trung Bao Le, Marco Stevanella, Laura Fusini, Enrico G. Caiani, Alberto Redaelli, Fotis Sotiropoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

118 Scopus citations


Recent computational methods enabling patient-specific simulations of native and prosthetic heart valves are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on two critical components of such methods: (1) anatomically realistic finite element models for simulating the structural dynamics of heart valves; and (2) fluid structure interaction methods for simulating the performance of heart valves in a patient-specific beating left ventricle. It is shown that the significant progress achieved in both fronts paves the way toward clinically relevant computational models that can simulate the performance of a range of heart valves, native and prosthetic, in a patient-specific left heart environment. The significant algorithmic and model validation challenges that need to be tackled in the future to realize this goal are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)217-228
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 18 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Reported MV analyses were co-funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (PRIN 2007 Program), and supported by Regione Lombardia and CILEA Consortium through a LISA Initiative 2010 grant. Also, these would not have been possible without the invaluable advice of Drs. Mauro Pepi, Gloria Tamborini and Francesco Alamanni from Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS (Milano, Italy). Trung Bao Le and Fotis Sotiropoulos were supported by NIH Grant RO1-HL-07262 and the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.


  • Finite element model
  • Fluid structure interaction
  • Heart valve
  • Medical imaging
  • Patient-specific modelling


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