Toward a more comprehensive understanding of organizational influences on implementation: the organization theory for implementation science framework

Sarah A. Birken, Cheyenne R. Wagi, Alexandra G. Peluso, Michelle C. Kegler, Jure Baloh, Prajakta Adsul, Maria E. Fernandez, Manal Masud, Terry T.K. Huang, Matthew Lee, Mary Wangen, Per Nilsen, Miriam Bender, Mimi Choy-Brown, Grace Ryan, Aliza Randazzo, Linda K. Ko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Implementation is influenced by factors beyond individual clinical settings. Nevertheless, implementation research often focuses on factors related to individual providers and practices, potentially due to limitations of available frameworks. Extant frameworks do not adequately capture the myriad organizational influences on implementation. Organization theories capture diverse organizational influences but remain underused in implementation science. To advance their use among implementation scientists, we distilled 70 constructs from nine organization theories identified in our previous work into theoretical domains in the Organization Theory for Implementation Science (OTIS) framework. Methods: The process of distilling organization theory constructs into domains involved concept mapping and iterative consensus-building. First, we recruited organization and implementation scientists to participate in an online concept mapping exercise in which they sorted organization theory constructs into domains representing similar theoretical concepts. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses were used to produce visual representations (clusters) of the relationships among constructs in concept maps. Second, to interpret concept maps, we engaged members of the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN) OTIS workgroup in consensus-building discussions. Results: Twenty-four experts participated in concept mapping. Based on resulting construct groupings' coherence, OTIS workgroup members selected the 10-cluster solution (from options of 7–13 clusters) and then reorganized clusters in consensus-building discussions to increase coherence. This process yielded six final OTIS domains: organizational characteristics (e.g., size; age); governance and operations (e.g., organizational and social subsystems); tasks and processes (e.g., technology cycles; excess capacity); knowledge and learning (e.g., tacit knowledge; sense making); characteristics of a population of organizations (e.g., isomorphism; selection pressure); and interorganizational relationships (e.g., dominance; interdependence). Discussion: Organizational influences on implementation are poorly understood, in part due to the limitations of extant frameworks. To improve understanding of organizational influences on implementation, we distilled 70 constructs from nine organization theories into six domains. Applications of the OTIS framework will enhance understanding of organizational influences on implementation, promote theory-driven strategies for organizational change, improve understanding of mechanisms underlying relationships between OTIS constructs and implementation, and allow for framework refinement. Next steps include testing the OTIS framework in implementation research and adapting it for use among policymakers and practitioners.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1142598
JournalFrontiers in Health Services
Volume3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
2023 Birken, Wagi, Peluso, Kegler, Baloh, Adsul, Fernandez, Masud, Huang, Lee, Wangen, Nilsen, Bender, Choy-Brown, Ryan, Randazzo and Ko.

Keywords

  • concept mapping
  • consensus-building
  • determinant framework
  • implementation
  • organization theory

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

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