Total cavopulmonary connections in children with a previous Norwood procedure

Anthony Azakie, Brian W. McCrindle, Lee N. Benson, Glen S. Van Arsdell, Jennifer L. Russell, John G. Coles, David Nykanen, Robert M. Freedom, William G. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Background. Outcomes of the Fontan operation in children initially palliated with the modified Norwood procedure are incompletely defined. Methods. From August 1993 to January 2000, 45 patients (mean age 2.6 ± 1.1 years, weight 12.7 ± 2.8 kg) who were palliated with staged Norwood procedures (hypoplastic left heart syndrome, n = 32; nonhypoplastic left heart syndrome, n = 13) underwent a modified Fontan operation. Preoperative features included moderate/severe atrioventricular valve regurgitation (n = 5, 11%), reduced ventricular function on echocardiography in 11 patients, McGoon index 1.56 ± 0.38, and pulmonary artery distortion in 18 patients (40%). Results. A lateral tunnel (n = 16) or an extracardiac conduit (n = 29) connection with fenestration in 38 patients (84%) was used. Concomitant procedures included pulmonary artery reconstruction (n = 24, 53%), atrioventricular valve repair (n = 4, 9%) or replacement (n = 1). Before Fontan, 12 patients (27%) had an intervention to address neoaortic obstruction, and 7 patients required balloon dilation/stenting of the left (n = 5) or right pulmonary artery (n = 5). Intraoperatively, left (n = 5) or right pulmonary artery (n = 1) stenting was performed in 5 patients (11%). On follow-up, 8 patients required additional interventional procedures to address left pulmonary artery narrowing (n = 5), or venous (n = 5) or arteriopulmonary collaterals (n = 1). Perioperative mortality was 4.4% (n = 2). There were 2 late deaths at a mean follow-up of 39 ± 20 months. Conclusions. In relatively high-risk patients, midterm results of the Fontan operation for children initially palliated with the Norwood procedure were good. Combined interventional-surgical treatment algorithms can lead to improved outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1541-1546
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2001


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