Background. Outcomes of the Fontan operation in children initially palliated with the modified Norwood procedure are incompletely defined. Methods. From August 1993 to January 2000, 45 patients (mean age 2.6 ± 1.1 years, weight 12.7 ± 2.8 kg) who were palliated with staged Norwood procedures (hypoplastic left heart syndrome, n = 32; nonhypoplastic left heart syndrome, n = 13) underwent a modified Fontan operation. Preoperative features included moderate/severe atrioventricular valve regurgitation (n = 5, 11%), reduced ventricular function on echocardiography in 11 patients, McGoon index 1.56 ± 0.38, and pulmonary artery distortion in 18 patients (40%). Results. A lateral tunnel (n = 16) or an extracardiac conduit (n = 29) connection with fenestration in 38 patients (84%) was used. Concomitant procedures included pulmonary artery reconstruction (n = 24, 53%), atrioventricular valve repair (n = 4, 9%) or replacement (n = 1). Before Fontan, 12 patients (27%) had an intervention to address neoaortic obstruction, and 7 patients required balloon dilation/stenting of the left (n = 5) or right pulmonary artery (n = 5). Intraoperatively, left (n = 5) or right pulmonary artery (n = 1) stenting was performed in 5 patients (11%). On follow-up, 8 patients required additional interventional procedures to address left pulmonary artery narrowing (n = 5), or venous (n = 5) or arteriopulmonary collaterals (n = 1). Perioperative mortality was 4.4% (n = 2). There were 2 late deaths at a mean follow-up of 39 ± 20 months. Conclusions. In relatively high-risk patients, midterm results of the Fontan operation for children initially palliated with the Norwood procedure were good. Combined interventional-surgical treatment algorithms can lead to improved outcomes.