Topoisomerases as anticancer targets

Justine L. Delgado, Chao Ming Hsieh, Nei Li Chan, Hiroshi Hiasa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

99 Scopus citations

Abstract

Many cancer type-specific anticancer agents have been developed and significant advances have been made toward precision medicine in cancer treatment. However, traditional or nonspecific anticancer drugs are still important for the treatment of many cancer patients whose cancers either do not respond to or have developed resistance to cancer-specific anticancer agents. DNA topoisomerases, especially type IIA topoisomerases, are proved therapeutic targets of anticancer and antibacterial drugs. Clinically successful topoisomerase-targeting anticancer drugs act through topoisomerase poisoning, which leads to replication fork arrest and double-strand break formation. Unfortunately, this unique mode of action is associated with the development of secondary cancers and cardiotoxicity. Structures of topoisomerase–drug–DNA ternary complexes have revealed the exact binding sites and mechanisms of topoisomerase poisons. Recent advances in the field have suggested a possibility of designing isoform-specific human topoisomerase II poisons, which may be developed as safer anticancer drugs. It may also be possible to design catalytic inhibitors of topoisomerases by targeting certain inactive conformations of these enzymes. Furthermore, identification of various new bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors and regulatory proteins may inspire the discovery of novel human topoisomerase inhibitors. Thus, topoisomerases remain as important therapeutic targets of anticancer agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)373-398
Number of pages26
JournalBiochemical Journal
Volume475
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 31 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Dr Robert Kerns for his support and Dr Lisa Oppegard for her critical comments on the manuscript. Studies from the authors’ laboratories were supported, in part, by the National Institutes of Health grants [GM59465, AI087671, and T326M008365] and the Ministry of Science and Technology grants [106– 2113-M-002-021-MY3 and 104-2911-I-002-302].

Funding Information:
We thank Dr Robert Kerns for his support and Dr Lisa Oppegard for her critical comments on the manuscript. Studies from the authors’ laboratories were supported, in part, by the National Institutes of Health grants [GM59465, AI087671, and T326M008365] and the Ministry of Science and Technology grants [106–2113-M-002-021-MY3 and 104-2911-I-002-302].

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