Volume management in acute decompensated and chronic heart failure (HF) remains a significant challenge. Although progress has been made in the development of mortality-reducing neurohormonal regimens in the reduced ejection fraction population, no clinical trial has yet demonstrated anything more than symptomatic relief or biomarker reduction with pharmacotherapeutic volume-based interventions made in the acutely decompensated individual or those with evolving outpatient congestion. As the number of patients with HF continues to grow, in addition to HF-related hospitalizations, identifying therapies that have the potential to aid in diuresis more safely and efficaciously is paramount to decreasing inpatient length of stay and preventing unnecessary admissions. More recently, a significant amount of research has been dedicated to the use of vasopressin antagonists, specifically tolvaptan, as adjunctive therapy to loop and thiazide diuretics. Although these agents do not seem to have a pervasive role in fluid management in the acute decompensated and chronic HF populations, they are effective tools to have available for specific clinical situations. This review summarizes the literature surrounding the use of tolvaptan for volume management in congestive HF, as well as offering practical guidance for use of this agent.
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© 2019 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
- heart failure
- vasopressin receptor antagonists