Tissue Organoid Cultures Metabolize Dietary Carcinogens Proficiently and Are Effective Models for DNA Adduct Formation

Angela L. Caipa Garcia, Jill E. Kucab, Halh Al-Serori, Rebekah S.S. Beck, Madjda Bellamri, Robert J. Turesky, John D. Groopman, Hayley E. Francies, Mathew J. Garnett, Meritxell Huch, Jarno Drost, Matthias Zilbauer, Volker M. Arlt, David H. Phillips

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Human tissue three-dimensional (3D) organoid cultures have the potential to reproduce in vitro the physiological properties and cellular architecture of the organs from which they are derived. The ability of organoid cultures derived from human stomach, liver, kidney, and colon to metabolically activate three dietary carcinogens, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aristolochic acid I (AAI), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), was investigated. In each case, the response of a target tissue (liver for AFB1; kidney for AAI; colon for PhIP) was compared with that of a nontarget tissue (gastric). After treatment cell viabilities were measured, DNA damage response (DDR) was determined by Western blotting for p-p53, p21, p-CHK2, and γ-H2AX, and DNA adduct formation was quantified by mass spectrometry. Induction of the key xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and NQO1 was assessed by qRT-PCR. We found that organoids from different tissues can activate AAI, AFB1, and PhIP. In some cases, this metabolic potential varied between tissues and between different cultures of the same tissue. Similarly, variations in the levels of expression of XMEs were observed. At comparable levels of cytotoxicity, organoids derived from tissues that are considered targets for these carcinogens had higher levels of adduct formation than a nontarget tissue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)234-247
Number of pages14
JournalChemical research in toxicology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 19 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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