Time scales and organizational theory

Sri Zaheer, Stuart Albert, Aks Zaheer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

253 Scopus citations


A critical specification lacking from much theory and research on organizations is that of time scale. Specification of the relevant time scale is as critical as the specification of the appropriate level or unit of analysis, a concept to which it is related. We define and explore five types of time scales and consider their implications for both the social constructionist and positivist approaches. Using examples from strategy and organizational theory, we show how the choice of time scale has important implications for the development of theory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)725-741
Number of pages17
JournalAcademy of Management Review
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1999

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