Time microscopy for all kinds of data including circadian clock biology

G. S. Katinas, F. Halberg, Germaine G Cornelissen-Guillaume, K. Otsuka, E. E. Bakken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Data showing a rhythm to the naked eye prominently, barely or not at all were described as kinds A, B and C, respectively. Here, we document good agreement between estimates of maxima and minima with eyeballing and with the addition of point and interval estimates of parameters in kind A data. We also construct a chart that provides estimates of uncertainties that can be obtained objectively while they are more difficult to quantify subjectively; again there is agreement. Interval as point estimates of rhythm characteristics and parameter comparisons are useful in charting all kinds of data and become indispensable as we proceed from kind A to kind C data. Illustrations included herein from molecular biology apply equally to all aspects of transdisciplinary science.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S20-S23
JournalBiomedicine and Pharmacotherapy
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - Oct 2005


  • Molecular biology
  • Rhythm characteristics
  • Time microscopy


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