Thyroid Hormones and Diabetes in Euthyroid Hispanic/Latino Adults of Diverse Backgrounds: HCHS/SOL

Victoria Persky, Chibuzor Abasilim, Konstantina Tsintsifas, Tessa Day, Robert M. Sargis, Martha Daviglus, Jianwen Cai, Sally Freels, Robert Kaplan, Carmen R. Isasi, Amber Pirzada, Michelle L. Meyer, Gregory A. Talavera, Bharat Thyagarajan, Shivani Agarwal, Noel Chavez, Arielle Grieco, Mary E. Turyk

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Context: Previous studies have demonstrated associations of endogenous thyroid hormones with diabetes; less is known about stages of diabetes development at which they are operative, mechanisms of associations, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Objective: This study examined associations of thyroid hormones with incident prediabetes and diabetes and with changes in glycemic traits in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), the largest cohort of Hispanic/Latino adults with diverse backgrounds in the United States. Methods: The study includes 592 postmenopausal euthyroid women and 868 euthyroid men aged 45 to 74 years without diabetes at baseline participating in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Baseline hormones included thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (T3), and indices calculated from thyroid hormones evaluating pituitary sensitivity to thyroid hormone. Transitions to diabetes and prediabetes, and changes in glycemic traits determined at the 6-year follow-up visit, were examined using multivariable Poisson and linear regressions. Results: Among women, T3 (incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.22-2.24; P = .001) and TSH (IRR = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.01-4.33; P = .047) were positively, while FT4 (IRR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39-0.88; P = .011) was inversely, associated with transition from prediabetes to diabetes. Among men, the T3/FT4 ratio was positively associated with transition from normoglycemia to prediabetes but not from prediabetes to diabetes. Indices measuring sensitivity of the pituitary to thyroid hormone suggested increased sensitivity in men who transitioned from prediabetes to diabetes. Conclusion: Positive associations in women of T3 and TSH and inverse associations of FT4, as well as inverse associations of thyroid indices in men with transition from prediabetes to diabetes, but not from normoglycemia to diabetes, suggest decreased pituitary sensitivity to thyroid hormones in women and increased sensitivity in men later in the development of diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberbvae039
JournalJournal of the Endocrine Society
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2024. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society.


  • diabetes
  • hormones
  • prediabetes
  • thyoid


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