Three-dimensional visualization of physiologically based kinetic model outputs

J. Nichols, P. Rheingans, D. Lothenbach, R. McGeachie, L. Skow, J. McKim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Outputs from a physiologically based toxicokinetic (PB-TK) model for fish were visualized by mapping time-series data for specific tissues onto a three-dimensional representation of a rainbow trout. The trout representation was generated in stepwise fashion: 1) cross-sectional images were obtained from an anesthetized fish using a magnetic resonance imaging system, 2) images were processed to classify tissue types and eliminate unnecessary detail, 3) processed images were imported to a visualization software package (Application Visualization System) to create a three-dimensional representation of the fish, encapsulating five volumes corresponding to the liver, kidney, muscle, gastrointestinal tract, and fat. Kinetic data for the disposition of pentachloroethane in trout were generated using a PB-TK model. Model outputs were mapped onto corresponding tissue volumes, representing chemical concentration as color intensity. The workstation software was then used to animate the images, illustrating the accumulation of pentachloroethane in each tissue during a continuous branchial (gill) exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)952-956
Number of pages5
JournalEnvironmental health perspectives
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes


  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Physiologically based kinetic model
  • Rainbow trout
  • Three-dimensional visualization


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