Three dimensional structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) for insect repellency of diastereoisomeric compounds: A hierarchical molecular overlay approach

S. C. Basak, R. Natarajan, W. Nowak, P. Miszta, J. A. Klun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

2-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 1-methylpropyl ester (Picaridin), and 1-(cyclohex-3-ene-1-ylcarbonyl)-2-methylpiperidine (AI3-37220; 220) are alternatives to DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), the most popular mosquito repellent. Picaridin and AI3-37220 exhibit polychiral diastereoisomerism and each has four diastereoisomers due to the presence of two asymmetric centers in their molecules. The diastereoisomers of these compounds have differing degrees of mosquito-repellent activity according to quantitative behavioral assays conducted at the United States Department of Agriculture. An insight into the stereochemical requirements for repellency is of great importance in the development of better repellents. Molecular overlay of the optimized geometries of the diastereoisomers was considered as a novel tool for Stereochemical Structure-Activity Relationship (SSAR) modeling. An earlier study using molecular mechanics (MM2) optimized geometries showed good promise. In continuation of this effort and to overcome certain defects in using MM2 geometries, a hierarchical overlay approach was developed. In this method geometry of the low energy conformer of each diastereoisomer was optimized using: the following quantum chemical methods in a graduated manner: (a) semiempirical AM1, (b) Hartree Fock (STO3G, 3-21G, 6-31G, and 6-311G), and (c) Density Functional Theory (B3LYP/6-31G, B3LYP/6-311G). The optimized geometries of different diastereoisomers were overlaid in various user defined combinations to calculate the root mean square distances (RMSD) of the overlaid structures. The RMSD with respect to the most active diastereoisomer (220SS) were found to have a strong relationship with biological potency. Common motifs in shapes and molecular surfaces that are probably critical for effective repellent activity were identified. The hierarchical approach gave valuable information on the quantum chemical level (basis set) at which optimization must be carried out to get the correct order of repellency of the diastereoisomers of Picaridin and 220.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)237-250
Number of pages14
JournalSAR and QSAR in environmental research
Volume18
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2007

Keywords

  • 3-D QSAR
  • AI3-37220
  • Ab initio calculations
  • Mosquito repellents
  • Overlay
  • Picaridin

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