We present a suite of seven 3D supernova simulations of non-rotating low-mass progenitors using multigroup neutrino transport. Our simulations cover single star progenitors with zero-age main-sequence masses between 9.6 and 12.5 M and (ultra)stripped-envelope progenitors with initial helium core masses between 2.8 and 3.5 M. We find explosion energies between 0.1 and 0.4 Bethe, which are still rising by the end of the simulations. Although less energetic than typical events, our models are compatible with observations of less energetic explosions of low-mass progenitors. In six of our models, the mass outflow rate already exceeds the accretion rate on to the proto-neutron star, and the mass and angular momentum of the compact remnant have closely approached their final value, barring the possibility of later fallback. While the proto-neutron star is still accelerated by the gravitational tug of the asymmetric ejecta, the acceleration can be extrapolated to obtain estimates for the final kick velocity. We obtain gravitational neutron star masses between 1.22 and 1.44 M, kick velocities between 11 and 695 km s−1, and spin periods from 20 ms to 2.7 s, which suggest that typical neutron star birth properties can be naturally obtained in the neutrino-driven paradigm. We find a loose correlation between the explosion energy and the kick velocity. There is no indication of spin-kick alignment, but a correlation between the kick velocity and the neutron star angular momentum, which needs to be investigated further as a potential point of tension between models and observations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank M. Kramer for valuable comments. This work was supported by the Australian Research Council through ARC Future Fellowships FT160100035 (BM), Future Fellowship FT120100363 (AH), and through the Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav) under project number CE170100004 (JP), by STFC grant ST/P000312/1 (BM), and by the US Department of Energy through grant DE-FG02-87ER40328 (YZQ). CC was supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program (RTP) Scholarship. PB was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Fund No. 11533006. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1430152 (JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements).
This research was undertaken with the assistance of resources obtained via NCMAS and ASTAC from the National Computational Infrastructure, which is supported by the Australian Government and was supported by resources provided by the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre with funding from the Australian Government and the Government of Western Australia. This work used the DiRAC Data Centric system at Durham University, operated by the Institute for Computational Cosmology on behalf of the STFC DiRAC HPC Facility (www.dirac.ac.uk); this equipment was funded by a BIS National E-infrastructure capital grant ST/K00042X/1, STFC capital grant ST/K00087X/1, DiRAC Operations grant ST/K003267/1, and Durham University. DiRAC is part of the UK National E-Infrastructure. The authors acknowledge the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute at the University of Minnesota for providing resources that contributed to the research results reported within this paper.
- Stars: massive
- Stars: neutron
- Supernovae: general