Three-dimensional place and route for FPGAs

Cristinel Ababei, Hushrav Mogal, Kia Bazargan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

61 Scopus citations


We present timing-driven partitioning and simulated-annealing (SA)-based placement algorithms together with a detailed routing tool for three-dimensional (3-D) field-programmable gate array (FPGA) integration. The circuit is first divided into layers with a limited number of interlayer vias, and then placed on individual layers, while minimizing the delay of critical paths. We use our tool as a platform to explore the potential benefits, in terms of delay and wire length (WL), that 3-D technologies can offer for FPGA fabrics. Experimental results show, on average, a total decrease of 25% in WL and 35% in delay can be achieved over traditional two-dimensional chips, when ten layers are used in 3-D integration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1132-1140
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2006


  • Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs)
  • Routing
  • Three-dimensional (3-D) circuits
  • Timing-driven placement

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