Three-dimensional orientation of the hips and shoulders in speed skating sprint starts

Margaret Hartfel, John Swigart, Susan Sandvig, Arthur G Erdman, Lela June Stoner, Nancy Greer

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Three-dimensional angular orientation relationships between the hips and shoulders of elite female speed skaters during the start and initial motions of the 1000m race were investigated. Data were collected at the Women's 1000m race during the XV Winter Olympic Games in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, using stereo-cinematographic techniques. Three dimensional coordinates of selected anatomical landmarks were determined via direct linear transformation. The data were smoothed using a quintic spline. Angular relationships were characterized by plots of trunk angle and rotation of the hips and shoulders in the frontal and transverse planes. Data for two representative skaters is presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Number of pages1
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number10
StatePublished - Jan 1 1989
EventAbstracts of the XII Congress, International Society of Biomechanics - Los Angeles, CA, USA
Duration: Jun 26 1989Jun 30 1989


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